Numerous countries have sent arms to Ukraine since Russia invaded on February 24.
Most recently, the United States agreed to supply Kyiv with advanced rocket-launch systems to try to turn the tide of the war in the eastern Donbas region, where the main city of Severodonetsk is under attack by Russian forces.
Despite the promises of support, Kyiv says it is still outgunned and is pleading for more heavy weapons.
Ukraine said on Sunday that its war with Russia had entered into a protracted phase and it needed continuous military support, not just one-offs.
“The West must understand that its help cannot be a one-time thing, but something that continues until our victory,” Ukraine’s Deputy Defence Minister Ganna Malyar told local media.
Below is a look at the weaponry pledged by some countries – some sent, some not. It is not an exhaustive list, as some nations keep their transfers secret.
The US said last week that it agreed to Kyiv’s request for high-mobility artillery rocket systems (HIMARS) multiple-rocket launchers, which will allow Ukrainian forces to hit deeper behind Russian lines while staying out of range of Russian artillery.
The HIMARS – which will be limited in range by the US to prevent Ukrainian forces from using them to strike targets inside Russia – are part of a $700m package of weapons to be paid for from a $40bn fund for Ukraine approved by Congress last month.
The administration of US President Joe Biden has already sent $4.5bn in military aid since the war began.
The weapons pledged or sent include 72 155mm howitzers, 72 vehicles to tow them, 144,000 rounds of ammunition, and more than 120 Phoenix Ghost tactical drones recently developed by the US Air Force specifically to address Ukraine’s needs.
The US has also pledged helicopters, armoured personnel carriers, 1,400 Stinger anti-aircraft systems, 5,000 Javelin anti-tank missiles, several thousand rifles with ammunition and a range of other equipment.
Turkey’s Bayraktar TB2 combat drones have become famous the world over since the war began, with videos going viral of Ukrainian forces using them to destroy convoys of Russian armoured vehicles and artillery.
Ukraine also said it used a TB2 to distract the defences of the Russian warship Moskva before pounding it with missiles in mid-April, causing it to sink.
Before the invasion, Ukraine had about 20 TB2s. In March, Kyiv said it received more, without saying how many.
Britain said on May 20 that it has committed $566m so far to supporting the Ukrainian military.
The government said the aid included 120 armoured vehicles, 5,800 anti-tank missiles, five air defence systems, 1,000 rockets, and 4.5 tonnes of explosives.
Prime Minister Boris Johnson also promised electronic warfare equipment, a counter-battery radar system, GPS jamming equipment, and thousands of night-vision devices.
Britain said it has also trained more than 22,000 Ukrainian soldiers.
Canada has supplied Ukraine with $208m worth of military aid since February.
In late May, the federal government said it was sending 20,000 artillery shells to go with the M777 howitzers it already transferred to boost Ukraine’s defences in the Donbas.
Ottawa has also sent drone cameras, rifles, ammunition, high-resolution satellite imagery, rocket launchers, thousands of hand grenades, and two tactical airlift aircraft.
Chancellor Olaf Scholz said last week that he would send Ukraine an air defence system capable of shielding a “large city” from Russian air raids.
Scholz said Germany would also deploy a tracking-radar system capable of detecting enemy artillery fire. His government has been accused of being slow to arm Kyiv.
In late April, Berlin broke with its policy of sending only defensive weapons and agreed to supply Ukraine with self-propelled howitzers and tanks.
Germany has been negotiating with countries in eastern and southern Europe about sending some of their Soviet-era equipment to Ukraine in return for newer German models.
In April, Spain shipped 200 tonnes of military equipment to Ukraine, including 30 trucks, several heavy transport trucks, and 10 small vehicles loaded with military material.
In mid-April, the French government said it delivered more than $107m of military equipment to Ukraine.
A week later, President Emmanuel Macron promised more aid, including MILAN anti-tank missiles and Caesar self-propelled howitzers.
A senate hearing last week confirmed Paris sent six howitzers and revealed it also transferred Mistral anti-aircraft missiles.
Norway sent 100 French-made Mistral anti-aircraft missiles to Ukraine as well as 4,000 M72 anti-tank weapons.
Sweden announced in late February that it would send 10,000 single-use anti-tank launchers along with demining equipment.
Finland, which like Sweden has applied for NATO membership since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, announced in February that it would send Kyiv 2,500 assault rifles, 150,000 rounds of ammunition, and 1,500 single-use anti-tank launchers. A month after the war began, Helsinki said it would send more weapons, without specifying types or quantities.
Three days after the war started, Denmark said it would send 2,700 anti-tank launchers.
On a visit to Kyiv in late, Danish Prime Minister Mette Fredriksen announced another $88m for weapons. Washington said Denmark plans to send a Harpoon anti-ship missile system, which can target ships as far as 300km (186 miles) offshore.
Poland said it sent $1.6bn worth of arms, including an unspecified number of tanks. Polish and US media have reported Warsaw supplied more than 200 tanks, which would make it Ukraine’s second-largest weapons supplier after the US.
Warsaw said it also transferred anti-tank missiles, mortars, ammunition and drones.
Slovakia so far contributed military material worth $164m and reached a deal with Ukraine on the sale of at least eight howitzers.
Latvia contributed military material worth $214m, including ammunition, Stinger anti-aircraft missiles and their launch pads, unmanned aircraft and drones.
A week ago, hundreds of Lithuanians contributed to a fundraiser to buy a Turkish combat drone for Ukraine in its war against Russia in a show of solidarity with a fellow country formerly under Moscow’s rule.
The target of $5.4m was raised in just three and a half days in Lithuania – a country of 2.8 million people – largely in small amounts to fund the purchase of a Bayraktar TB2 unmanned aerial vehicle from Turkey.
In just 3,5 days people of Lithuania raised €5 million to buy Bayraktar drone for Ukraine in a crowdfunding initiative. Together we #StandWithUkraine! 🇱🇹🇺🇦
— Lithuanian Government 🇱🇹 (@LithuanianGovt) May 28, 2022
Estonia gave $244m in military aid including Javelin anti-tank missiles, howitzers, anti-tank mines and anti-tank guns, and handguns along with ammunition.
Central and Eastern Europe
Slovenia announced in late February that it was sending Kalashnikov assault rifles and ammunition. Slovenia was also in discussions with Germany about sending Ukraine a large number of its Soviet-era tanks in return for German tanks and troop carriers. But no deal has yet been announced.
Bulgaria has not officially provided military equipment to Ukraine because of opposition from pro-Russian socialists.
The Czech Republic sent military aid worth $152m and said it is planning further supplies worth up to $30m. US Defence Secretary Lloyd Austin said the Czech government gave combat helicopters and rocket systems. Prague said Czech companies will also repair Ukrainian tanks.
Belgium, Netherlands, Greece, Italy
Belgium said it sent 5,000 automatic rifles and anti-tank weapons to Ukraine.
The Netherlands in late February promised the delivery of 200 Stinger missiles and in April said it would send a limited number of howitzers.
Under a deal announced by Germany’s Chancellor Scholz on May 31, Greece will send Ukraine some of its Soviet-era tanks in exchange for more modern vehicles from Berlin. Athens has also sent 400 Kalashnikov assault rifles, rocket launchers and ammunition.
Italy is keeping its arms deliveries to Ukraine secret.